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Today in History


Today is 19 December 2018, and this is some of what happened.

Events

211 - Publius Septimius Geta, co-emperor of Rome, is lured to come without his bodyguards to meet his brother Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla), to discuss a possible reconciliation. When he arrives, the Praetorian Guard murders him and he dies in the arms of his mother, Julia Domna.
1154 - Henry II of England is crowned at Westminster Abbey.
1187 - Pope Clement III is elected.
1490 - Anne, Duchess of Brittany, is married to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor by proxy.
1562 - The Battle of Dreux takes place during the French Wars of Religion.
1606 - The Susan Constant, the Godspeed, and the Discovery depart England carrying settlers who found, at Jamestown, Virginia, the first of the thirteen colonies that became the United States.
1675 - The Great Swamp Fight, a pivotal battle in King Philip's War, gives the English settlers a bitterly won victory.
1776 - Thomas Paine publishes one of a series of pamphlets in The Pennsylvania Journal entitled "The American Crisis".
1777 - American Revolutionary War: George Washington's Continental Army goes into winter quarters at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.
1796 - French Revolutionary Wars: Two British frigates under Commodore Horatio Nelson and two Spanish frigates under Commodore Don Jacobo Stuart engage in battle off the coast of Murcia.
1828 - Nullification Crisis: Vice President of the United States John C. Calhoun pens the South Carolina Exposition and Protest, protesting the Tariff of 1828.
1900 - Hopetoun Blunder: The first Governor-General of Australia John Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun, appoints Sir William Lyne premier of the new state of New South Wales, but he is unable to persuade other colonial politicians to join his government and is forced to resign.
1907 - Two hundred thirty-nine coal miners die in the Darr Mine Disaster in Jacobs Creek, Pennsylvania.
1912 - William Van Schaick, captain of the steamship General Slocum which caught fire and killed over one thousand people, is pardoned by U.S. President William Howard Taft after three-and-a-half-years in Sing Sing prison.
1920 - King Constantine I is restored as King of the Hellenes after the death of his son Alexander of Greece and a plebiscite.
1924 - The last Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost is sold in London, England.
1927 - Three Indian revolutionaries, Ram Prasad Bismil, Roshan Singh and Ashfaqulla Khan are executed by the British Empire.
1932 - BBC World Service begins broadcasting as the BBC Empire Service.
1941 - World War II: Adolf Hitler becomes Supreme Commander-in-chief of the German Army.
1941 - World War II: Limpet mines placed by Italian divers heavily damage the HMS Valiant and HMS Queen Elizabeth in Alexandria harbour.
1946 - Start of the First Indochina War.
1956 - Irish-born physician John Bodkin Adams is arrested in connection with the suspicious deaths of more than 160 patients. Eventually he is convicted only of minor charges.
1961 - India annexes Daman and Diu, part of Portuguese India.
1964 - The South Vietnamese military junta of Nguyen Khánh dissolve the High National Council and arrest some of the members.
1967 - Harold Holt, the Prime Minister of Australia, is officially presumed dead.
1972 - Apollo program: The last manned lunar flight, Apollo 17, crewed by Eugene Cernan, Ronald Evans, and Harrison Schmitt, returns to Earth.
1974 - Nelson Rockefeller is sworn in as Vice President of the United States under President Gerald Ford under the provisions of the twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
1975 - John Paul Stevens is appointed a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
1981 - Sixteen lives are lost when the Penlee lifeboat goes to the aid of the stricken coaster Union Star in heavy seas.
1983 - The original FIFA World Cup trophy, the Jules Rimet Trophy, is stolen from the headquarters of the Brazilian Football Confederation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
1984 - The Sino-British Joint Declaration, stating that China would resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong and the United Kingdom would restore Hong Kong to China with effect from July 1, 1997 is signed in Beijing, China by Deng Xiaoping and Margaret Thatcher.
1986 - Mikhail Gorbachev, leader of the Soviet Union, releases Andrei Sakharov and his wife from exile in Gorky.
1995 - The United States Government restores federal recognition to the Nottawaseppi Huron Band of Potawatomi Native American tribe.
1997 - SilkAir Flight 185 crashes into the Musi River, near Palembang in Indonesia, killing 104.
1998 - President Bill Clinton is impeached by the United States House of Representatives, becoming the second President of the United States to be impeached.
2000 - The Leninist Guerrilla Units wing of the Communist Labour Party of Turkey/Leninist attack a Nationalist Movement Party office in Istanbul, Turkey, killing one person and injuring three.
2001 - A record high barometric pressure of 1085.6 hPa (32.06 inHg) is recorded at Tosontsengel, Khövsgöl, Mongolia.
2001 - Argentine economic crisis: December riots: Riots erupt in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
2012 - Park Geun-hye is elected the first female president of South Korea.
2013 - Spacecraft Gaia is launched by European Space Agency.

Births

1554 - Philip William, Prince of Orange (died 1618)
1587 - Dorothea Sophia, Abbess of Quedlinburg (died 1645)
1683 - Philip V of Spain (died 1746)
1699 - William Bowyer, English printer (died 1777)
1714 - John Winthrop, American astronomer and educator (died 1779)
1778 - Marie Thérèse of France (died 1851)
1779 - Albine de Montholon, French mistress of Napoleon (died 1848)
1796 - Manuel Bretón de los Herreros, Spanish poet, playwright, and critic (died 1873)
1797 - Antoine Louis Dugès, French obstetrician and naturalist (died 1838)
1817 - James J. Archer, American lawyer and general (died 1864)
1820 - Mary Livermore, American journalist and activist (died 1905)
1825 - George Frederick Bristow, American violinist and composer (died 1898)
1831 - Bernice Pauahi Bishop, American philanthropist (died 1884)
1849 - Henry Clay Frick, American businessman and financier (died 1919)
1852 - Albert Abraham Michelson, Prussian-American physicist, chemist, and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (died 1931)
1853 - Charles Fitzpatrick, Canadian lawyer and politician, 12th Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec (died 1942)
1861 - Italo Svevo, Italian author and playwright (died 1928)
1863 - Wallace Bryant, American archer (died 1953)
1865 - Minnie Maddern Fiske, American actress and playwright (died 1932)
1873 - Alphonse Kirchhoffer, French fencer (died 1913)
1875 - Carter G. Woodson, American historian and author, founded Black History Month (died 1950)
1876 - Bernard Friedberg, Austrian-Israeli scholar and author (died 1961)
1888 - Fritz Reiner, Hungarian-American conductor (died 1963)
1894 - Ford Frick, American journalist and businessman (died 1978)
1895 - Ingeborg Refling Hagen, Norwegian author and educator (died 1989)
1899 - Martin Luther King, Sr., American pastor, missionary, and activist (died 1984)
1901 - Rudolf Hell, German engineer, invented the Hellschreiber (died 2002)
1901 - Oliver La Farge, American anthropologist and author (died 1963)
1901 - Fritz Mauruschat, German footballer and manager (died 1974)
1902 - Ralph Richardson, English actor (died 1983)
1903 - George Davis Snell, American geneticist and immunologist, Nobel Prize laureate (died 1996)
1905 - Irving Kahn, American businessman (died 2015)
1905 - Giovanni Lurani, Italian race car driver, engineer, and journalist (died 1995)
1906 - Leonid Brezhnev, Ukrainian-Russian marshal, engineer, and politician, 4th Head of State of the Soviet Union (died 1982)
1907 - Jimmy McLarnin, Irish-American boxer, actor, and golfer (died 2004)
1909 - W. A. Criswell, American pastor and author (died 2002)
1910 - Jean Genet, French author, poet, and playwright (died 1986)
1914 - Mel Shaw, American animator and screenwriter (died 2012)
1915 - Édith Piaf, French singer-songwriter and actress (died 1963)
1915 - Claudia Testoni, Italian hurdler, sprinter, and long jumper (died 1998)
1916 - Roy Ward Baker, English director and producer (died 2010)
1916 - Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, German political scientist, journalist, and academic (died 2010)
1918 - Professor Longhair, American singer-songwriter and pianist (died 1980)
1918 - Lee Rich, American producer and production manager (died 2012)
1920 - Little Jimmy Dickens, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (died 2015)
1920 - David Susskind, American talk show host and producer (died 1987)
1922 - Eamonn Andrews, Irish radio and television host (died 1987)
1923 - Robert V. Bruce, American historian and author (died 2008)
1923 - Gordon Jackson, Scottish-English actor and singer (died 1990)
1924 - Carlo Chiti, Italian engineer (died 1994)
1924 - Doug Harvey, Canadian ice hockey player and coach (died 1989)
1924 - Gary Morton, American comedian, actor, and producer (died 1999)
1924 - Edmund Purdom, British-Italian actor (died 2009)
1924 - Michel Tournier, French journalist and author (died 2016)
1925 - Tankred Dorst, German author and playwright
1925 - William Schutz, American psychologist and academic (died 2002)
1925 - Robert born Sherman, American songwriter and screenwriter (died 2012)
1926 - Bobby Layne, American football player and coach (died 1986)
1926 - Fikret Otyam, Turkish painter and journalist (died 2015)
1927 - James Booth, English actor and screenwriter (died 2005)
1928 - Eve Bunting, Irish-American author and academic
1928 - Nathan Oliveira, American painter and sculptor (died 2010)
1929 - Bob Brookmeyer, American trombonist, pianist, and composer (The Thad Jones/Mel Lewis Orchestra) (died 2011)
1929 - David Douglas, 12th Marquess of Queensberry, Scottish potter
1929 - Gregory Carroll, American singer-songwriter and producer (The Orioles and The Four Buddies) (died 2013)
1929 - Howard Sackler, American playwright and screenwriter (died 1982)
1930 - Wally Olins, English businessman and academic (died 2014)
1930 - Knut Helle, Norwegian historian and professor (died 2015)
1932 - Salvador Elizondo, Mexican author, poet, playwright, and critic (died 2006)
1932 - Wayne Tippit, American actor (died 2009)
1933 - Kevan Gosper, Australian runner and politician
1933 - Christopher Smout, Scottish historian and academic
1934 - Al Kaline, American baseball player and sportscaster
1934 - Pratibha Patil, Indian lawyer and politician, 12th President of India
1934 - Casper R. Taylor, Jr., American lawyer and politician
1935 - Bobby Timmons, American pianist and composer (died 1974)
1935 - Joanne Weaver, American baseball player (died 2000)
1936 - Marian McKnight, American model, Miss America 1957
1940 - Phil Ochs, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (died 1976)
1941 - Lee Myung-bak, South Korean businessman and politician, 10th President of South Korea
1941 - Maurice White, American singer-songwriter and producer (Earth, Wind and Fire) (died 2016)
1942 - Cornell Dupree, American guitarist (died 2011)
1942 - Dennis E. Fitch, American pilot (died 2012)
1943 - Ross M. Lence, American political scientist and academic (died 2006)
1943 - James L. Jones, American general and politician, 22nd United States National Security Advisor
1944 - William Christie, American-French harpsichord player and conductor (Les Arts Florissants)
1944 - Mitchell Feigenbaum, American physicist and mathematician
1944 - Martin Hume Johnson, English physiologist and academic
1944 - Richard Leakey, Kenyan paleontologist and politician
1944 - Alvin Lee, English singer-songwriter and guitarist (Ten Years After) (died 2013)
1944 - Tim Reid, American actor and director
1944 - Steve Tyrell, American singer-songwriter and producer
1944 - Zal Yanovsky, Canadian singer-songwriter and guitarist (The Lovin' Spoonful) (died 2002)
1945 - Elaine Joyce, American actress and dancer
1945 - John McEuen, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Nitty Gritty Dirt Band)
1946 - Rosemary Conley, English businesswoman, author, and broadcaster
1946 - Robert Urich, American actor and producer (died 2002)
1947 - Jimmy Bain, Scottish bass player and songwriter (Rainbow, Wild Horses, and Dio) (died 2016)
1948 - Ken Brown, Canadian ice hockey player and sportscaster
1949 - Sebastian, Danish singer-songwriter and guitarist
1949 - Orna Berry, Israeli computer scientist and businesswoman
1950 - Eleanor J. Hill, American lawyer and diplomat
1951 - Mohammad Reza Aref, Iranian engineer and politician, 2nd Vice President of Iran
1951 - Alan Rouse, English mountaineer and author (died 1986)
1952 - Walter Murphy, American pianist and composer
1954 - Jeff Allam, English race car driver
1954 - Tim Parks, English author and translator
1955 - Lincoln Hall, Australian mountaineer and author (died 2012)
1955 - Rob Portman, American lawyer and politician
1956 - Phil Harris, American captain and fisherman (died 2010)
1956 - Tom Lawless, American baseball player and manager
1956 - Shane McEntee, Irish farmer and politician, Minister of State for Food, Horticulture and Food Safety (died 2012)
1957 - Cyril Collard, French actor, director, and composer (died 1993)
1957 - John Gulager, American actor, director, and cinematographer
1957 - Kevin McHale, American basketball player, coach, and manager
1958 - Limahl, English singer and keyboard player (Kajagoogoo and Brooks)
1958 - Steven Isserlis, English cellist and author
1959 - Iván Vallejo, Ecuadorian mountaineer
1960 - Derrick Jensen, American author and activist
1960 - Michelangelo Signorile, American journalist and author
1961 - Eric Allin Cornell, American physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate
1961 - Matthew Waterhouse, English actor and author
1961 - Reggie White, American football player and wrestler (died 2004)
1962 - Gary Fleder, American director, producer, and screenwriter
1963 - Jennifer Beals, American model and actress
1963 - Til Schweiger, German actor, director, and producer
1964 - Béatrice Dalle, French actress
1964 - Arvydas Sabonis, Lithuanian basketball player
1965 - Chito Martínez, Belizean-American baseball player
1966 - Chuckii Booker, American singer-songwriter and producer
1966 - Rajesh Chauhan, Indian cricketer
1966 - Alberto Tomba, Italian skier
1966 - Eric Weinrich, American ice hockey player and coach
1967 - Criss Angel, American magician and singer (Angel and Angeldust)
1967 - Charles Austin, American high jumper
1968 - Ken Marino, American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter
1969 - Michael Bates, American sprinter and football player
1969 - Tom Gugliotta, American basketball player
1969 - Richard Hammond, English journalist and producer
1969 - Nayan Mongia, Indian cricketer
1970 - Tyson Beckford, American model and actor
1971 - Karen Pickering, English swimmer
1972 - Alyssa Milano, American actress and television personality
1972 - Warren Sapp, American football player and sportscaster
1973 - Michalis Grigoriou, Greek footballer and coach
1973 - Erick Wainaina, Kenyan runner
1973 - Zulfiya Zabirova, Russian cyclist
1974 - Eduard Ivakdalam, Indonesian footballer
1974 - Joe Jurevicius, American football player
1974 - Felipe Lopez, Dominican-American basketball player
1974 - Mikko Paananen, Finnish bass player (HIM)
1974 - Jake Plummer, American football player and sportscaster
1974 - Ricky Ponting, Australian cricketer
1975 - Makis Belevonis, Greek footballer
1975 - Russell Branyan, American baseball player
1975 - Brandon Sanderson, American author and academic
1975 - Jon Smith, English journalist and author
1975 - Jeremy Soule, Canadian composer
1975 - Olivier Tébily, Ivorian-French footballer
1977 - Jorge Garbajosa, Spanish basketball player
1977 - LaTasha Jenkins, American sprinter
1977 - Irina Voronina, Russian model
1978 - Patrick Casey, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
1979 - Kevin Devine, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Bad Books)
1979 - Rafael Soriano, Dominican baseball player
1980 - Jake Gyllenhaal, American actor and producer
1980 - Chris Haslam, Canadian skateboarder and bass player
1980 - Marla Sokoloff, American actress
1981 - Grégory Dufer, Belgian footballer
1982 - Mo Williams, American basketball player
1983 - Nektarios Alexandrou, Cypriot footballer
1983 - Casey Crescenzo, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (The Dear Hunter and The Receiving End of Sirens)
1983 - Bridget Phillipson, English politician
1983 - Laura Pomeroy, Canadian swimmer
1983 - Matt Stajan, Canadian ice hockey player
1984 - Ian Kennedy, American baseball player
1985 - Gary Cahill, English footballer
1985 - Andrea Baldini, Italian fencer
1985 - Neil Kilkenny, English-Australian footballer
1985 - Sally Kipyego, Kenyan runner
1985 - Dan Logan, English bass player (The Kooks, Cat the Dog, and The Ordinary Boys)
1985 - Lady Sovereign, English rapper
1986 - Ryan Babel, Dutch footballer
1986 - Lazaros Christodoulopoulos, Greek footballer
1986 - Zuzana Hejnová, Czech hurdler
1986 - Miguel Lopes, Portuguese footballer
1986 - Calvin Andrew, English footballer
1987 - Cédric Baseya, French-Congolese footballer
1987 - Karim Benzema, French footballer
1988 - Alexis Sánchez, Chilean footballer
1988 - Peter Winn, English footballer
1989 - Yong Jun-hyung, South Korean singer-songwriter, rapper and producer (Beast)
1989 - Kousei Miura, Japanese jockey
1989 - Hamza Riazuddin, English cricketer
1990 - Greg Bretz, American snowboarder
1990 - Sally Fitzgibbons, Australian surfer
1991 - Jorge Blanco, Mexican-Argentinian actor and singer
1991 - Declan Galbraith, English singer-songwriter
1991 - Sumire Uesaka, Japanese voice actress and singer
1992 - Iker Muniain, Spanish footballer
1992 - Raphael Spiegel, Swiss footballer
1993 - Isiah Koech, Kenyan runner
1994 - Maudy Ayunda, Indonesian actress and singer-songwriter
1994 - M'Baye Niang, French footballer

Deaths

211 - Publius Septimius Geta, Roman emperor (born 189)
1111 - Al-Ghazali, Iranian jurist, philosopher, and mystic (born 1058)
1123 - Saint Berardo, Italian bishop and saint
1327 - Agnes of France, Duchess of Burgundy (born 1260)
1370 - Pope Urban V (born 1310)
1737 - James Louis Sobieski, Polish son of John III Sobieski (born 1667)
1741 - Vitus Bering, Danish-Russian hydrographer and explorer (born 1681)
1745 - Jean-Baptiste van Loo, French painter (born 1684)
1749 - Francesco Antonio Bonporti, Italian priest and composer (born 1672)
1751 - Louise of Great Britain (born 1724)
1807 - Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm, German-French author and playwright (born 1723)
1813 - James McGill, Scottish-Canadian businessman and philanthropist, founded McGill University (born 1744)
1819 - Thomas Fremantle, English admiral and politician (born 1765)
1848 - Emily Brontë, English novelist and poet (born 1818)
1851 - Joseph Mallord William Turner, English painter (born 1775)
1878 - Bayard Taylor, American author and poet (born 1825)
1899 - Henry Ware Lawton, American general (born 1843)
1915 - Alois Alzheimer, German psychiatrist and neuropathologist (born 1864)
1916 - Thibaw Min, Burmese king (born 1859)
1927 - Ashfaqulla Khan, Indian activist (born 1900)
1927 - Ram Prasad Bismil, Indian poet and activist (born 1897)
1927 - Roshan Singh, Indian activist (born 1892)
1932 - Yun Bong-gil, South Korean activist (born 1908)
1933 - George Jackson Churchward, English engineer and businessman (born 1857)
1938 - Stephen Warfield Gambrill, American lawyer and politician (born 1873)
1939 - Hans Langsdorff, German captain (born 1894)
1944 - Abbas II of Egypt (born 1874)
1944 - Rudolph Karstadt, German businessman (born 1856)
1946 - Paul Langevin, French physicist and academic (born 1872)
1953 - Robert Andrews Millikan, American physicist and eugenicist, Nobel Prize laureate (born 1868)
1968 - Norman Thomas, American minister and politician (born 1884)
1972 - Ahmet Emin Yalman, Turkish journalist, author, and academic (born 1888)
1982 - Dwight Macdonald, American philosopher, author, and critic (born 1906)
1984 - Joy Ridderhof, American missionary (born 1903)
1986 - V. C. Andrews, American author (born 1923)
1986 - Werner Dankwort, Russian-German colonel and diplomat (born 1895)
1987 - August Mälk, Estonian author, playwright, and politician (born 1900)
1988 - Robert Bernstein, American author and playwright (born 1919)
1989 - Stella Gibbons, English journalist, author, and poet (born 1902)
1991 - Joe Cole, American roadie and author (born 1961)
1993 - Michael Clarke, American drummer (The Byrds, The Flying Burrito Brothers, and Firefall) (born 1946)
1996 - Marcello Mastroianni, Italian-French actor and singer (born 1924)
1997 - Masaru Ibuka, Japanese businessman, co-founded Sony (born 1908)
1997 - Jimmy Rogers, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (born 1924)
1998 - Mel Fisher, American treasure hunter (born 1922)
1998 - Antonio Ordóñez, Spanish bullfighter (born 1932)
1999 - Desmond Llewelyn, Welsh-English actor (born 1914)
2000 - Rob Buck, American guitarist and songwriter (10,000 Maniacs) (born 1958)
2000 - Milt Hinton, American bassist and photographer (born 1910)
2000 - John Lindsay, American lawyer and politician, 103rd Mayor of New York City (born 1921)
2000 - Pops Staples, American singer and guitarist (The Staple Singers) (born 1915)
2002 - Will Hoy, English race car driver (born 1952)
2002 - Arthur Rowley, English footballer and manager (born 1926)
2002 - George Weller, American author, playwright, and journalist (born 1907)
2003 - Peter Carter-Ruck, English lawyer, founded Carter-Ruck (born 1914)
2003 - Hope Lange, American model and actress (born 1933)
2003 - Les Tremayne, English-American actor (born 1913)
2004 - Herbert C. Brown, English-American chemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (born 1912)
2004 - Renata Tebaldi, Italian soprano and actress (born 1922)
2005 - Vincent Gigante, American mobster (born 1927)
2008 - James Bevel, American minister and activist (born 1936)
2008 - Carol Chomsky, American linguist and educator (born 1930)
2008 - Michael Connell, American political consultant (born 1963)
2008 - Dock Ellis, American baseball player and coach (born 1945)
2009 - Giridharilal Kedia, Indian businessman (born 1936)
2009 - Hussein-Ali Montazeri, Iranian theologian, scholar, and activist (born 1922)
2009 - Kim Peek, American megasavant (born 1951)
2010 - Anthony Howard, English journalist and author (born 1934)
2010 - Trudy Pitts, American singer and pianist (born 1932)
2012 - Inez Andrews, American singer-songwriter (The Caravans) (born 1929)
2012 - Robert Bork, American lawyer, judge, and scholar, United States Attorney General (born 1927)
2012 - Paul Crauchet, French actor (born 1920)
2012 - Georges Jobé, Belgian motocross rider (born 1961)
2012 - Amnon Lipkin-Shahak, Israeli general and politician, 22nd Transportation Minister of Israel (born 1944)
2012 - Larry Morris, American football player (born 1933)
2012 - Peter Struck, German lawyer and politician, 13th German Federal Minister of Defence (born 1943)
2013 - Winton Dean, English musicologist and author (born 1916)
2013 - Herb Geller, American-German saxophonist and composer (born 1928)
2013 - Al Goldstein, American publisher and pornographer (born 1936)
2013 - Ned Vizzini, American author and screenwriter (born 1981)
2014 - S. Balasubramanian, Indian journalist and director (born 1936)
2014 - Philip Bradbourn, English lawyer and politician (born 1951)
2014 - Arthur Gardner, American actor and producer (born 1910)
2014 - Igor Rodionov, Russian general and politician, 3rd Russian Minister of Defence (born 1936)
2014 - Dick Thornton, American-Canadian football player and coach (born 1939)
2015 - Jimmy Hill, English footballer, manager, and sportscaster (born 1928)
2015 - Greville Janner, Baron Janner of Braunstone, Welsh-English lawyer and politician (born 1928)
2015 - Kurt Masur, German conductor and educator (born 1927)
2015 - Dickie Moore, Canadian ice hockey player and businessman (born 1931)
2015 - Karin Söder, Swedish educator and politician, 33rd Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs (born 1928)